Understanding of Leadership According to Experts

Understanding of Leadership According to Experts
The Following Is The Definition Of Understanding Of Leadership According To Experts.

William G. Scott
Leadership is the process of influencing activities carried out in a group in its efforts to achieve the goals set.

F. A. Nigro
The essence of leadership is to influence other activities.

F. I. Munson "The Management of Man"
Leadership as the ability or capacity to overcome people so as to achieve maximum results with the smallest possible friction and perhaps the greatest formation of cooperation.

Ordway Tead
Leadership as a merger temperament that makes a person might be able to encourage several others to get the job done.

Hemhill and Coon
Leadership is the attitude of an individual who leads group activities on the goals to be achieved together.

Rauch and Behling
Leadership is the process of influencing organized group activity towards achieving goals.

Kartini Kartono
Leadership is a specific, specific character, needed in certain situations. Because the group carries out certain activities and has specific goals and equipment. Group leaders with characteristic features are functions of certain situations.

Tannenbaum, Weschler and Massarik
Leadership is interpersonal influence, which is carried out in certain situations, and is directed through the communication process, to achieve certain goals or more.

P. Pigors
Leadership is the process of pushing and pushing through managed interactions from various individual differences, controlling one's strength in pursuing shared goals.

George R. Terry
Leadership is the relationship that exists within a person or leader and the influence of others to want to work consciously in relation to the task of achieving desired goals.

Stephen J. Carrol and Henry L. Tosj
Leadership is the process of influencing others to do what they want to do.

Theo Haiman and William G. Scott
Leadership is the process by which several people are directed, led and influenced in the selection and achievement of goals.

Leadership is the activity of government and decision makers.

Leadership is a way to influence one's behavior to fight can be done following the will of the leader.

G. L. Feman and E. K. Taylor
Leadership is the ability to create group activities to achieve organizational goals with maximum effectiveness and cooperation from each individual.

James M. Black
Leadership is the ability to be able to convince others to work together under his leadership into an integrated team to achieve a certain goal.

P. Pigors "Ledearship
Leadership is a process of control of people jostling to pursue shared goals, which are managed through the interaction of individual differences.

C. Schenk "Leadership": Infantry Journal
Management leadership is to know people by means of persuasion and inspiration rather than through direction and the like, or even violence, hidden threats.

H. Kootz & O 'Donnel "Principles of Management"
Leadership is an activity to persuade people to work together towards a common goal.

Leadership is a process that controls the power to pursue shared goals, through the successful interaction of various individuals.

Leadership Theory
The following are theories from a leader.

Trait Theory
Keith Devis formulated 4 general characteristics that influence the success of organizational leadership, including:

Also Read Articles That May Be Related: Understanding Text Reviews, Examples, Characteristics, Purpose, Structure and Rules

Maturity and Extent of Social Relations
Self Motivation and Achievement
Attitude of Human Relations
Behavioral Leadership Theories and Situations
Based on research, the behavior of a leader who bases this theory has a tendency towards 2 things.
The first is called Konsiderasi which is the tendency of a leader to describe a close relationship with subordinates. Examples of symptoms that exist in this case such as: defending subordinates, giving input to subordinates and willing to consult with subordinates.
The second is called the Initiation Structure, which is the tendency of a leader to give boundaries to subordinates. Examples that can be seen, subordinates get instructions in carrying out the task, when, how to work

Relationship of Power and Politics

Relationship of Power and Politics
Ramlan Surbakti in his book entitled Understanding Political Science, states that power is a concept related to behavior. Power is seen as a symptom that is always present in the political process.
In the political science dictionary there are several concepts related to power (power), such as influence (influence), persuasion (persuasion), force (strength), coercion (violence) and so forth.

Influence is the ability to influence others to change their attitudes and behavior voluntarily. Persuasion is the ability to convince others with an argument to do something. Force is the use of physical pressure, such as limiting freedom, causing pain or limiting the fulfillment of the biological needs of others to do something.
The definition of coercion is a demonstration of power or threats and coercion carried out by a person or group of other parties in order to behave and behave in accordance with the wishes of the owner of power.
From the above concept, political power can be formulated as the ability to use sources of influence to influence the process of making and implementing political decisions so that decisions benefit themselves, their groups or society in general.
If someone, an organization, or a political party can organize so that various relevant state bodies for example make rules that prohibit or require a thing or case, then they have political power.

A close variation of political power is authority (authority), the ability to make others do things on the basis of the law or the mandate obtained from a power.
A policeman who can stop a car on the road does not mean he has power, but he has the authority he obtained from the Traffic Law. Thus, if a holder of authority carries out his authority not in accordance with the mandate of the rules that he runs, then he has abused his authority, and for that he can be prosecuted and subject to sanctions.

The desire to have power is a natural state of humanity, exactly as intended by Sartre and Nietsche. For Sartre, basic human needs are considered important and valued. As for Nietsche, humans are basically always driven by the desire to become supermen, powerful humans. In the context of political position, it may be this natural human desire that drives a person to pursue political power.

According to Lord Acton, power tends to corrupt and absolute power is certainly corrupt. It is already known to many people, especially those who pay attention to the practice of power or politics, both in government, corporations, and social organizations. On the other hand, because politics tries to manage and control the affairs of society, politics can also be used as a means to convey goodness and truth to the wider community .
However, the opposite happened. People who went through the political process at the same time were given the mandate to work for the people instead became the first people to betray the mandate, by putting forward their own personal and group interests above those of the people.
So, it is actually the people who work in the political orbit, and not politics itself, who have made the stigma and label that politics is always oriented to power.

Examples of Power
For example the President, he made a law (the subject of power) but must also be subject to the law (the object of power).

Power and Leadership Differences

Power and Leadership Differences
The success of a leader is largely determined by his ability to understand the situation and skills in determining the right type of power to respond to the demands of the situation.
Therefore, power is often seen as equality of leadership. Though power cannot be equated with leadership. Some differences between the two, are:
Power does not demand compatibility of targets, but merely demands dependence. Whereas leadership demands compatibility between the leaders' goals and their followers.
Power can be used by individuals or groups to control other individuals or groups. Whereas leadership only focuses on downward influence (subordinates), and minimizes the pattern of influence to the side or parallel and upward.
To obtain compliance, power emphasizes the tactics used. Whereas leadership emphasizes more on the interpersonal style.

Legitimacy of Power
In government it has a different meaning: "power" is defined as "the ability to influence someone to be able to do something if done", but this "authority" will refer to claims of legitimacy, rights and justification to exercise power.
For example, the public is allowed to have the power to punish criminals with capital punishment without a trial, whereas civilized people believe in the rule of law and the law and assume that only in a court according to law can have the authority to order the death penalty.

Power is positive
It is an ability that is bestowed by God to an individual as the highest authority that can influence and change the thinking of another person or group to do what is desired by the authority holder seriously and or not because of coercion both physically and mentally. But not in power a ruling has authority, because the authority is special.

Negative Power
It is the nature or time of someone who is arrogant, apathetic, and selfish in influencing others to take action that they want to hold to power by force or pressure both mentally and physically.
Usually power holders who have negative traits do not have good intellectual and emotional intelligence, they only think short in making decisions without having to do sharp thinking in decision making,
they cannot even carry out the commands they command to others who are under their control due to limited thinking power. And generally power with a negative character is only looking for personal gain / group above his power.

Authority of Power
Authority is a right that has been established in a social order to establish policies, determine decisions regarding important issues, and to resolve conflicts. There are three kinds of authority, namely:

Charismatic authority (charismatic authority)
Charismatic authority is an authority based on charisma, which is a special ability (revelation, pulung) that exists in a person. Charismatic authority takes the form of an authority for the person himself and can be exercised against a group of people or even the largest part of society.

Traditional Authority (traditional authority)
The characteristics of traditional authority are:
There are traditional provisions that bind the authorities who have the authority, as well as other people in the community
There is a higher authority than the position of someone who is personally present
As long as there is no conflict with traditional provisions, people can act freely.
Rational / Legal Authority (rational / legal authority)
Rational / legal authority is the authority that is based on the legal system in force in society. The legal system here is understood as rules that have been recognized and adhered to by the community and even those that have been strengthened by the state.

Understanding Power According to Experts

Understanding Power According to Experts
The following is an Understanding of Power According to Experts.

Power is the ability of someone who can change other people or groups in a specific way, for example in the power and implementation of his work.

Ossip K Flechtheim
Social power is the entirety of capabilities, relationships and processes that result in obedience from other parties for the goals set by the holder of power.

Ramlan Surbakti
Power is the ability to influence others to behave and think according to the will that influences.

Walterd Nord
Power is the ability to influence the flow of energy and available funds to achieve a goal that is clearly different from other goals.

Miriam Budiardjo
Power is the ability of a human to influence his behavior to someone / group in such a way, so that the behavior becomes in accordance with the desires and goals of the person who has that power (Miriam Budiardjo).

The nature of power
Power is more corrupt tends to be an expression we often hear, in English "Power tends to corrupct". Power can be said to be inherent in one's position or in that person, the explanation above is described as follows:

Position Power, the power that is in a person's position in an organization
Personal Power, the power that is in the person as a social relationship.
Source of Power
The source of power can be in the form of position, wealth or trust. For example a commander of his men or an employer of his employees. In this case subordinates can be prosecuted if they violate work discipline or commit corruption.
The source of power can also be wealth. For example a wealthy businessman has power over a politician or a subordinate who has a debt that has not been repaid.
Power can also come from beliefs or religion. In many places alim ulama have power over their people, so they are considered as informal leaders who need to be taken into account in the decision-making process in that place.

Types of Power
According to MacIver there are three general patterns of power layer / power pyramid system, which are as follows:

The first type (caste type)
is a power layer system with a clear and rigid dividing line. This type is usually found in caste communities, where almost no vertical social movement occurs.

The second type (oligarchic type)
still has a clear dividing line. However, the basis for the differentiation of social classes is determined by the culture of society, especially on the opportunities given to citizens to obtain certain powers. The difference with the first type is that although the position of citizens in the second type is still based on birth ascribed status, individuals are still given the opportunity to move up the layers.

The third type (democratic type)
shows the fact that there will be a dividing line between the layers which are once cars. The birth of a person does not determine a person, the most important is ability and sometimes also the luck factor.

Frontliner Requirements and Teller Duty

Frontliner Requirements and Teller Duty
Tellers are officers of the Bank whose daily work is to serve customers in terms of banking financial transactions by their customers. The task of a stoned in general is to help, handle and provide solutions for all customers who want to conduct banking transactions and provide a cash or non-cash service.

Teller Duty
Tellers have the duty to provide banking services for customers and prospective customers in a bank. The teller function becomes very crucial because every day they are directly dealing with customers, this requires that a teller must look perfect at all times in order to provide the best service to customers.
A teller must arrive on time according to the time of entry, and ensure all equipment is functioning properly, such as a calculator, computer and other equipment
Be friendly to all customers, always greet or breeting and give thanks
Maintain appearance in accordance with bank standards such as how to dress, neat hair, and using Bank ID cards and others.
Every time they make a deposit and withdraw cash a teller is required to do a customer money calculation
Perform a non-cash payment transaction or cash to customers who transact and update transaction data on a computer system.
Obliged to provide receipt slips to customers who transact and sign it as a signature of endorsement
Responsible for the compatibility between the amount of cash in the system and the cash it receives.
The two positions and positions above are part of the frontliner because the function of the frontliner itself is to be the vanguard of a bank that deals directly with customers and prospective customers, a frontliner is required to give an attractive impression every time.
A front liner is also required to be able to give the best impression to customers, have an innovative ability to customers, look good and attractive, can work with teams or work alone, have the ability to communicate well and clearly.

Frontliner Requirements
Must be attractive in terms of face and appearance
Having a professional height and weight
Physically and mentally healthy
Having a strong mentality in terms of serving customers
Have a high sense of humor and curiosity
Energetic and workmanlike
Able to control oneself
Not easily provoked emotions and harsh words
Having a high social life
Having high character
Good at getting along and socializing with the environment
Able to work together and commit to various types of parties

Definition of Power
Power is an authority that can be obtained by a person / group to carry out that authority in accordance with the authority given, authority cannot be exercised beyond the authority obtained or the ability to influence the behavior of people / groups in accordance with the wishes of the perpetrators (Miriam Budiarjo, 2002)
or Power is the ability to influence others to think and behave according to the will that influences (Ramlan Surbakti, 1992).
In public speaking, power can mean group power, state official power, royal power ,. So it is not wrong if power is the ability to influence other parties according to the will who has that power.
Robert Mac Iver said that Power is the ability to control the behavior of other people both willingly by giving commands / indirectly by using all available methods or tools. Power is usually in the form of relationships, some are ruled and some are governed. Humans act as both objects and subjects of power.

Authority After Discussion

Authority After Discussion (authority rule after discussion)
The autocratic nature of decision making is less when compared to the first method. Because the authority rule after discussion method considers the opinions or opinions of more than one member of the organization in the decision making process.
Thus, decisions taken through this method will improve the quality and responsibility of its members as well as the emergence of the speed aspect (quickness) in decision making as a result of efforts to avoid the process of discussion that is too broad. In other words, the opinions of members of the organization are highly considered in the decision-making process, but the autocratic behavior of the leader, the group is still influential.
This decision making method also has a weakness, namely the members of the organization will compete to influence the decision maker or decision maker. This means how the members of the organization who express their opinions in the decision making process, trying to influence the group leader that his opinions that need attention and consideration.

Frontliner - Definition, Tasks, Types, Functions, Conditions
Frontliner - Definition, Duties, Types, Functions, Requirements: Hearing the word Frontliner sounds unfamiliar to ordinary people, we only often hear the word customer service and teller, even though both of these are types of positions from the frontliner.

Frontliner Definition
Frontliner is a job category in a company usually banking and other services. In general, front liners are tasked to serve customers directly.

Frontliner's duty
The task of the frontliner to provide customers with clear information is the main task of this type of work. A Frontline must look attractive and polite, because to reflect the image of the company where he works.
A frontline must have the following behaviors namely, be sincere smile, warm face and full of enthusiasm, regard the customer as an important person, always listen to a customer's needs, always mention the name of the customer, have good body language, have good product knowledge, and finally have a neat pregnancy.

Frontliner Position Types
Positions in the frontliner may include the following:

Customer Service
Customer service is an activity that aims to provide a service or service to clients, consumers, customers and others - in solving a problem that is being experienced while maintaining a comfort and satisfaction.
The service that can be provided by a customer service is to receive complaints and problems from consumers and provide a solution or a solution to the problem.

Duties and Functions of Customer Service
A customer service must be able and clever in solving a problem or in other ways looking for a way out to solve a problem faced by consumers or customers.
The task of a customer service is to provide a good service and maintain good relations with customers, clients, or customers. Customer service also functions to:

Customer Service Duties
Communicator, by providing information and facilities to customers who need help
Provides information on bank products
Served to Serve bookkeeping and closing customer accounts
Handling complaint, to serve all forms of complaints from customers
Served to serve customers in terms of services or products, (transfers, collections, transfer of passbooks, and others
Carry out the tasks given by superiors

Decision Making Stages and Techniques

Decision Making Stages and Techniques
Decision Making Stages
The Steps of Decision Making According to Simon (1960) are as follows:

namely a collection of information to identify a problem.

namely a stage of designing solutions in alternative forms in problem solving.

namely a stage of choosing from solutions from the alternatives that have been provided.

namely a stage of implementing a decision and reporting the results.

Elements of Decision Making
The Following Are The Elements Of Decision Making.
the first is the purpose of decision making
the second Identification of alternative decisions that solve a problem
The third is a calculation of factors that cannot be known before or beyond human reach
And finally the tools and equipment to evaluate or measure the results of a decision.
Factors that need to be considered in Decision Making
Factors that need to be considered in decision making according to Terry, namely:

The tangible as well as the intangible, emotional and rational things need to be taken into account in decision making.
Every decision must be made as material to achieve organizational goals.
Every decision should not be oriented towards personal interests, but must prioritize the interests of the organization.
Rarely do satisfactory choices, therefore make alternative alternatives.
Decision making is a mental action from this action must be changed into physical action.
Effective decision making takes a long time.
Practical decision making is needed to get better results.
Every decision should be institutionalized so that the decision is known to be true.
Each decision is the beginning of the next set of chain activities.

Decision Making Techniques
Decision Making Methods
In the decision making process there are several methods that are often used by leaders, namely:
Authority without discussion (Authority Rule Without Discussion)
This method of decision making is often used by autocratic leaders or in military leadership. This method has several advantages, namely fast, in the sense that the organization does not have enough time to decide what to do.
In addition, this method is quite perfectly acceptable if the decision making that is carried out relates to routine issues that do not require discussion to get the approval of its members. However, if this decision-making method is used too often, it will cause problems, such as the emergence of distrust of members of the organization against the decisions determined by their leaders, because they are not even involved in the decision-making process.
Decision making will have a more meaningful quality, if made together involving all members of the group, than decisions taken individually.

Expert opinion
Sometimes a member of an organization is given the title of an expert as an expert, making it possible to have the power and power to make decisions. This decision-making method will work well, if a member of the organization who is considered an expert really has no doubt about his ability in certain matters by other members.
In many cases, the problem of people who are considered experts is not a simple problem, because it is very difficult to determine indicators that can measure people who are considered experts (superior).
Some argue that an expert is someone who has the best quality; to make a decision, but on the contrary not a few people who disagree with these measures. Therefore, determining whether someone in the group is truly an expert is a complex issue.