Decision Making Stages and Techniques

Decision Making Stages and Techniques
Decision Making Stages
The Steps of Decision Making According to Simon (1960) are as follows:

namely a collection of information to identify a problem.

namely a stage of designing solutions in alternative forms in problem solving.

namely a stage of choosing from solutions from the alternatives that have been provided.

namely a stage of implementing a decision and reporting the results.

Elements of Decision Making
The Following Are The Elements Of Decision Making.
the first is the purpose of decision making
the second Identification of alternative decisions that solve a problem
The third is a calculation of factors that cannot be known before or beyond human reach
And finally the tools and equipment to evaluate or measure the results of a decision.
Factors that need to be considered in Decision Making
Factors that need to be considered in decision making according to Terry, namely:

The tangible as well as the intangible, emotional and rational things need to be taken into account in decision making.
Every decision must be made as material to achieve organizational goals.
Every decision should not be oriented towards personal interests, but must prioritize the interests of the organization.
Rarely do satisfactory choices, therefore make alternative alternatives.
Decision making is a mental action from this action must be changed into physical action.
Effective decision making takes a long time.
Practical decision making is needed to get better results.
Every decision should be institutionalized so that the decision is known to be true.
Each decision is the beginning of the next set of chain activities.

Decision Making Techniques
Decision Making Methods
In the decision making process there are several methods that are often used by leaders, namely:
Authority without discussion (Authority Rule Without Discussion)
This method of decision making is often used by autocratic leaders or in military leadership. This method has several advantages, namely fast, in the sense that the organization does not have enough time to decide what to do.
In addition, this method is quite perfectly acceptable if the decision making that is carried out relates to routine issues that do not require discussion to get the approval of its members. However, if this decision-making method is used too often, it will cause problems, such as the emergence of distrust of members of the organization against the decisions determined by their leaders, because they are not even involved in the decision-making process.
Decision making will have a more meaningful quality, if made together involving all members of the group, than decisions taken individually.

Expert opinion
Sometimes a member of an organization is given the title of an expert as an expert, making it possible to have the power and power to make decisions. This decision-making method will work well, if a member of the organization who is considered an expert really has no doubt about his ability in certain matters by other members.
In many cases, the problem of people who are considered experts is not a simple problem, because it is very difficult to determine indicators that can measure people who are considered experts (superior).
Some argue that an expert is someone who has the best quality; to make a decision, but on the contrary not a few people who disagree with these measures. Therefore, determining whether someone in the group is truly an expert is a complex issue.